She finished her schooling at the St. Paul’s Mission School and subsequently graduated from the Scottish Church College in Kolkata. Bose has wanted to be an actress for as long as she can remember, as she told Washington Bangla Radio.
After starting her television career with Kahaani Hamaaray Mahaabhaarat Ki, Puja Bose was seen in romantic show Tujh Sang Preet Lagai Sajna, in which she played the role of a simple Punjabi girl, Vrinda. Pooja only views the shows in which she works in and hence couldn't compare her shows with the other shows aired on television. But the actress confidently declared her show to be a hit.
She has also acted in a Telugu film titled Veedu Theda. She did her debut in the film Macho Mustanaa with Hiran Chatterjee (formerly called Macho Mustafaa but it changed its title due to objections from Muslim clerics regarding the use of the word "Mustafaa"). She bagged a role in Raja Chanda's next film Challenge 2 starring superstar Dev Adhikari and Sujit Mondal's next film Rocky starring Mahaakshay Chakraborty. Another unconfirmed movie is Diwana Holo Mon opposite Hiran Chatterjee.